<   2006年 08月 ( 34 )   > この月の画像一覧


As I explained the other day, I can check out the result of the exam on the NASBA’s website. You put the seven-digit Section ID of a subject, namely FAR, BEC, REG, or AUD, and the date of your birthday on the entry field, and then press the “submit” button. If the necessary procedure was completed in the exam organization, then your score appears on the website.

Last week I found that I passed FAR, REG, and BEC. But the result of the AUD was not ready yet.

Those seven digit Section ID is given to each subject. Since I took the four subjects at one time, my Section IDs for those four subjects were serial.

<Subject> <Section ID>
 AUD     # # # # # 4 9
 BEC    # # # # # 5 0
 REG      # # # # # 5 1
 FAR      # # # # # 5 2

Whenever I check out the last subject, AUD, I always confirm the scores of the other three subjects as well, wishing they wouldn’t be modified in any chance.

But, no matter how many times I tried checking them, the outputs were always same:

FAR   # # # # # 5 2 → Score= 89
REG  # # # # # 5 1 → Score= 85
BEC # # # # # 5 0 → Score= 79
AUD # # # # # 4 9 → ERROR (, which means it’s not scored yet.)

Because I tried it thousands of times, I even memorized the Section ID
of AUD, “# # # # # 4 9.”

Arriving home, I started up the PC and entered those numbers for AUD as always.

Then, the number “79” came out.

Ah, this is the score of BEC, 79. I must have input the section ID of BEC by mistake.

And then, I carefully input the number of AUD, “# # # # # 4 9.”

Again, the result was 79. Does this mean…. !!!!!?????

So I compared the output of BEC & AUD on the screen.

...It was no mistake. Wow! They happened to be the same score.


Royal Straight Flush!!





Today I passed USCPA exam!

Again, let me say that it is YOUR HELP that led me here!! I really really really appreciate all of your support, advice, help, encouragement, ...and kindness.


by nn_77 | 2006-08-31 18:36 | USCPA (general) | Comments(34)
←Click here if you liked today's diary. Thank you.

Today I had a petit offline meeting with mamo-san, who sat for the last subject of the certified tax accountant exam the other day, and AD-san, who has passed all the four subjects of USCPA exam the other day.

We exchanged our feelings about the examination with a lot of information about how to proceed the study, what to do after passing the exams, and our career design for future... over drinks.

I drank a lot and was a little talkative, as is often the case with me in a drinking party... Those who know nn only on this blog without actually meeting me in person would be thinking I'm such a big drinker with a big mouth.

I'm not! But, yeah, may be close...

I have to improve my behavior by the time I join in 定例会 next time... でも、please don't stay away with me, because 呑んで陽気なだけで、絡んだりとかそういうのはないですから(笑)

Arriving home with a drunken head, I found an envelope on the table. It was the one from NASBA.

I knew what would be inside before I opened it: the result of the exam which I already knew by checking out the NASBA's website.

BINGO. This was about my pass on REG. Though I knew it through the internet, it's a relief to confirm it on paper.

I checked out the website again for the result of AUD, only to find the result wasn't ready yet. Now it seems to me that it'd take much longer from now. OK. I'll wait as a proverb goes: Sleep and wait for good luck.
by nn_77 | 2006-08-30 06:59 | USCPA (general) | Comments(3)


←Click here if you liked today's diary. Thank you.

【5:00 a.m.】

因为我想为今天出发的朋友写comments, 今天早上我早起了。
(I got up early in the morning today, because I wanted to leave a comment on the blogs of those who're leaving Japan today for USCPA exam!)

By the way, ブログ活動1周年記念について日記を書いたところ、沢山の方々からアクセスと、コメントをいただくことが出来ました。大変ありがとうございました。お店を出している店長が、店の前に沢山の花輪が届いたらこんなに嬉しいんだろうな!って思いました。

昨日は初めて、Unique User数(訪問者数)が100を超えました!

皆さんnight owl=夜猫子=夜更かしさん、か、 an early bird=早起きさんですね!

Page view(閲覧回数、クリック回数)についても650を超えました!!

I'm very glad to know so many people has visited here. Thank you very much.

It's funny that my blog comes on the top if you search for "uscpa ハワイ" with Google.

It encourages me so much when I feel so many people are showing some interests in my blog.

(The result of AUD hasn't arrived yet.)

我要忍耐等。( I have to wait patiently.)
・ 日本語の「待つ」が中国語では「等(deng)」。面白いですね!

I've gotta start to study Chinese again!

I have to keep working hard!

结果 jie/guo 2/3 : result
忍耐 ren/nai 3/4 : endure, be patient
继续 ji/xu 4/4: continue, keep
by nn_77 | 2006-08-29 05:00 | USCPA (general) | Comments(6)


←Click here if you liked today's diary. Thank you.

Today is the first anniversary of the commencement of my blog activity.

Initially, I started my blog in so-net blog, and this is the first entry.

Reading it again after a year…, I feel it embarrassing. My TOEIC record of those days was just 910. Keep writing in English for 2 months, I marked 990 in Nov 2006. This is one benefit I got from my blog activity.

Another purpose of my keeping my blog is to practice Chinese. Included in the title of my blog is 漢語, which is pronounced as “han-yu,” meaning Chinese language.

In a couple of months after I started my blog, I changed from so-net blog to this excite blog, which can display Chinese language neatly. Another advantage of Excite blog is that you can arrange the skin of the blog as you like if you have some knowledge about HTML and CSS.

So, being engaged with my blog, I got a chance to practice English, Chinese, and some techniques about website design.

But, above all, the biggest purpose of this blog was obviously my preparation for USCPA exam. In the last 12 months, I really learned a lot about USCPA exam. A lot of on-line friends provided me with a lot of information about this foreign examination. Thank you, friends. Your help really helped me a lot.

Since I opened my blog, many pieces of info gathered here, some of which I myself contributed based on my daily study. So, on this first anniversary, I redesigned my website so that this blog can serve as an information tool for those who are interested in USCPA exams, and those who are actually preparing for the exam.

On the left column I itemized the USCPA topics I referred to so far in my blog; a click on it leads you to the relevant past page of the blog.

On the right column I laid a series of links in the order or the steps you are to take to pass the USCPA exams.
Looking back my past experience, I remember that I had to check out “what should I do next, and how?” whenever I moved from one stage to another. So I put those relevant links on the right column so that they can serve you as a sort of milestones.

But, please note that my blog is nothing but a hobby-base website. It’s no professional information website, which means the information I provide here is NOT always accurate or correct, but it is merely a hint or just a reference list for you. I’m very sorry that I’m afraid I cannot give you any guarantee about the correctness of my info. So please make a judgment by yourself.

Anyway, it is your everyday visit here and your encouraging comments and questions that made it possible for me to continue this blog until today. I really appreciate your kindness. THANK YOU VERY MUCH!!

I’ll keep writing about my everyday effort to study those subjects in English, Chinese, and Japanese. I also try my best to communicate with you as I’ve been doing so far.

So, let’s keep in touch here on my blog. And I’ll visit yours when you have yours.





nn 的 為 USCPA 和 漢語 的 努力ですが、


中国語ピンイン: nn de wei USCPA he hanyu de nuli

カタカナ: nn ダ ウェイ USCPA フ ハンユゥ ダ ヌーリー


= nnのUSCPAと中国語の為の努力

みたいな意味です。(weiweiさんのnative check済です: 太谢谢, ww小姐!)

それでは、皆様、今後とも、「nn的為USCPA和漢語的努力」 と nn を、宜しくお願いいたします。
m(_ _)m

by nn_77 | 2006-08-28 12:45 | USCPA (general) | Comments(10)

Prospective Financial Statements


When CPA examines a client's projected financial statements, the CPA's report should

a. Explain the principal differences between historical and projected financial statements.

b. State that the CPA peformed procedures to evaluate management's assumptions.

c. Refer to the CPA's auditor's report on the historical financial statements.

d. Include the CPA's opinion on the client's ability to continue as a going concern.


--- う~ん、僕も"b"だと思うんですが。。。

根拠は、下記の実際のExamination Reportです。

Interim Attestation Standards
AT Section 301 の.34より抜粋

Independent Accountant’s Report

We have examined the accompanying forecasted balance sheet, statements of income, retained earnings, and cash flows of XYZ Company as of December 31, 20XX, and for the year then ending. fn 18 XYZ Company’s management is responsible for the forecast. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the forecast based on our examination.

Our examination was conducted in accordance with attestation standards established by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and, accordingly, included such procedures as we considered necessary to evaluate both the assumptions used by management and the preparation and presentation of the forecast. We believe that our examination provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

In our opinion, the accompanying forecast is presented in conformity with guidelines for presentation of a forecast established by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, and the underlying assumptions provide a reasonable basis for management’s forecast. However, there will usually be differences between the forecasted and actual results, because events and circumstances frequently do not occur as expected, and those differences may be material. We have no responsibility to update this report for events and circumstances occurring after the date of this report.




b. State that the CPA peformed procedures to evaluate management's


a. Explain the principal differences between historical and projected financial statements.
--- これっぽい記述はみあたりませんよね。。。

c. Refer to the CPA's auditor's report on the historical financial statements.
--- 第一段落で「the historical financial statements」そのものには言及していますが、それに関する「the CPA's auditor's report」への言及はありませんよね。引っ掛け問題でしょうか?

d. Include the CPA's opinion on the client's ability to continue as a going concern.
--- going concern については、一般のindependent auditor's reportで、必要に応じて言及するわけですが、ことさら、「projected financial statements」に特有のことではないと思います。 私の知識では、projected financial statements の監査においてgoing concernについての記述をすることがあるのかどうか分かりませんが、一般に、projected financial statements といえば、例えば、あるプロジェクトを推進する場合、当社の財務諸表はどうなるかという予測の財務諸表(projected financial statements) を作って、銀行に融資させるための説得材料として作ったりします。で、銀行側が「社長、これ、ホンマにこんな風になるんでっか?」と、銀行員としてのprofessional skepticismを行使するので、社長さんは「何いうてんねん。ちゃんと、ホレ、監査も受けとるんやで」といえるように、監査を受けるんですね。
"However, there will usually be differences between the forecasted and actual results, because events and circumstances frequently do not occur as expected, and those differences may be material.We have no responsibility to update ・・・"

少し脱線しました。上記はFinancial Projectionの使い方のごく1例に過ぎませんが、going concernが特に焦点になるような文脈は、あったとしても、全てのFinancial Projectionがそうかというと、そうではないような気がします。。。


by nn_77 | 2006-08-27 23:59 | Comments(6)

Integrity of the management



>Commented by CPA受験生 at 2006-08-27 16:02 x

--- はい、こんにちわ!


--- ありがとうございます!


--- はい、一緒に考えましょう!こちらこそ、宜しくお願いします。




Which of the following auditor concerns most likely could be so serious that the auditor concludes that a financial statement audit CANNOT be performed?

a. Management fails to modify prescribed internal controls for changes in information technology.

b. Internal control activities requiring segregation of duties are rarely monitored by management.

c. Management is dominated by one person who is also the majority

d. There is a substantial risk of intentional misapplication of accounting principles.





また、Representation letterをもらうのも、一応、少なくとも、書面上でmanagementに「大丈夫。managementの責任を理解して、managementとしてやるべきことはきちんと真面目にやってるよー。監査に必要な書類も包み隠さず提出するよー。」と言わしめるわけですよね。
下手すると、クライアントと一緒に訴えられてお縄にかかるわけですから、悪意の無い、誠実なクライアントを選ぶことは、監査人にとっては大切なことになるわけです。逆に言うと、悪意丸見えのお客さんは、門前払いする必要がありますよね。illegal actの善後策をきちんと取らないクライアントの監査からwithdrowする必要があるのも、ある種、同じ文脈といえるかもしれません。


d. There is a substantial risk of intentional misapplication of accounting principles.

ひっかかたキーワードは"intentional"です。つまり、「わざと」誤った会計原則を使おうとしているわけです。人に監査頼んどいて、自分はintentional に粉飾決算するなんて、とんでもないヤツです。integrityのかけらもありません。「そら、ひどすぎるわ。やめさせてもらうわ。」です。


a. Management fails to modify prescribed internal controls for changes in information technology.
--- これってOK、というのをGLEIMでやったことがある気がするんです。
たしか、『internal controlについて甘いところがあって、監査人から指摘を受けながらも対応しないのはいいか?→いいよ。だって、費用対効果などを勘案したら、必ずしも内部統制をピシっと出来ないことだってあるもん。』みたいな問題でした。IT投資なんてお金もかかりますものね。無い袖は振れない、という会社もあるでしょう。まあ、悪意があるわけではなさそうですね。

b. Internal control activities requiring segregation of duties are rarely monitored by management.
--- じゃあこれはどやねん、と。managementのサボリはあかんやろ! おっしゃる通りですが、managementがmonitorするのも限界もあるでしょうし、程度問題ですよね。たしか、このICのmonitorって、内部統制の章でControl envrionment, Risk assesment, Control acitivities, Information&communication, Monitoring の話が出てきたときに習いましたよね。で、これを学んだのは、結局、Test of Internal Controlを理解するためでした。 Test of Internal Controlの結果、ICが機能していない場合は・・・「監査なんかやってられるか!」、、、ではなくって(笑)、「はいはい、もうICはアテにしません。さっさとSubstantive Testさせてもらうわな。」でした。 なので、これも本問のように、AUDITをしない理由とまではならないと思います。

c. Management is dominated by one person who is also the majority
--- これは、Fraud risk factorのひとつでしたね。で、fraud risk factorというのは、「fraudが発覚するときに散見される状況であって、こうした状況があるからといって、必ずしもfraudがあるわけではない」っていうのが決まり文句でしたよね。 それくらいのものなので、クライアントに悪意が潜んでいる「かもしれない」という「目安」にはなっても、それだけでクライアントを「悪」と決め付けてはいけないのでした。

AU320の09:The auditor neither assumes that management is dishonest nor assumes unquestioned honesty.

以上より、nn は、上記問題の答えは"d"だと思いまーす。 皆さん、いかがでしょうか? 



では、また。  See you!
by nn_77 | 2006-08-27 23:55 | >AUD | Comments(6)

祝幸运!(Good Luck!)

This morning I tried GLEIM-CD for AUD after a long interval.
The result was

70%. Ummm… 3 weeks are enough to initiate a stark oblivion…

After experiencing USCPA exam, now I seem to understand the comments of K-1 fighters and boxers.

試合前なんかに、they often say “I’m in a good condition now, so I’ll beat him.”

スポーツ音痴の僕は、今ひとつこの意味が分かりませんでした。だって、プロなんだから、試合前に調整するとか、そんなこと言わないで、1年中トレーニングして、常にベストコンディションでいるのがあたりまえじゃないのか?って。So I thought they should put themselves in a good condition all the time, whether or not they’re going to have a game soon.

But, now, I got what they mean by that. Right before the USCPA exam, the score of my GLEIM CD was relatively better than now. So, keeping the best condition is not as easy as I thought. And so, it's important to make it best right before the match! だから、試合前、試験前って、特に調整が大切なんですね。普段の実力作りのトレーニングも大事だけど、そうした積み重ねがフルに発揮できるような試合前の調整。

調整というと、なんだか慣らし運転のようにも聴こえますが、決してそうではなく、僕の場合は試験前日までホテルでガリガリしていました。この直前までガリガリするのは、たらさんNihao KTさんからのアドバイスでした。

And it worked. 試験前に勉強したことが試験で出たかどうか、とうことではなく、試験前まで、問題集をやりまくって、問題を解くリズムを作っていたのが良かったのだと思います。試験での緊張感を最小限に抑えることができました。

Many of my blogger friends of USCPA exam candidates in Japan are leaving Japan to sit for the exams next week. I sincerely hope everything will go fine with them. 皆さんの試合前の「調整」がうまくいきますように!心より祈っています。
GOOD LUCK for all of you! I’m strongly crossing my fingers!!
我祝愿您的成功!(成功をお祈りしています) 祝幸运!(Good Luck!)
by nn_77 | 2006-08-27 08:36 | USCPA (general) | Comments(6)
【 ↓ クリックすると少し拡大して、字がハッキリします】

【 ↓ クリックすると少し拡大して、字がハッキリします】


・オフィス家具 ・・・ 7年 
・車、コンピューター ・・・5年

MillerのOffice Furnitureは、オフィス家具なので7年。
10,000 × 14.29% = $1,429

同様に、SmithのTruckと、TuckerのComputers & Printersは、「車、コンピューター」なので5年。
15,000 × 20% = $3,000
5,000 × 20% = $1,000






$10,000 ÷ 7年 × 200% = $2,857 と、なるはず。



1 ÷ 7 = 14.28%


$10,000 ÷ 7年 =$1,428 のこと。

ということは、この表の数値って、「 ×200% 」を無視してる数字になってるんです。


でも、でも、でも、普通、200%定率法で耐用年数が5年だったら、1 ÷ 5 × 200% の 「40.00」のはずなのに。。。



【 ↓ クリックすると少し拡大して、字がハッキリします】

あ、Half-year conventionを適用って書いてある!(赤色下線部参照)

Half-year Conventionっていうと、あの、

「Personal property(動産)については、取得年度と除却年度については、その年度の中間点(mid point)で取得・除却したとみなして減価償却費を計算する」






さて、すこし脱線しましたが、ということで、今回、この表にも、Half-year conventionって書いてあるし、確かに、この設問で問われている資産は動産だし、「1年目の償却費」なので、本件においてHalf year conventionが適用されるのはとても自然なことである、ということになります。


$10,000 ÷ 7年 × 200% ÷ 2 = 1,428


また、ひとつ、すっきりしてよかった! おやすみなさい! zzz...
by nn_77 | 2006-08-26 22:22 | >REG | Comments(3)


Since I got the scores of REG and BEC the other day, I’ve been continuously worried about the results of AUD and FAR. So I cannot help but checking out the NASBA’s website many times in a day: when I got up in the morning; when I leave for the office; when I’m back home from the office; after I brush my teeth at night; after I got out of the bathroom; before going to bed…

As I explained the other day, it goes as follows.

(1) Input the section number and your date of birth, and push the submit button.

(2) Then, the score appears as below
            The result of BEC ↓

(3) If the score is not ready yet,

I’m repeating this again and again in a day. And whenever I check out the score of AUD and FAR, I also check out the result of BEC and REG, both of which I passed the other day; although I passed the two, I’m still worried and cannot believe it, and so I cannot help but confirming the results again and again --- But no matter how many times I checked them out, the output is always 79 for BEC and 85 for REG; I passed them… OK. At least it wasn’t a dream.

Like this, whenever I check the website, I always confirm the results of all the four subjects.

Today, I did the same course of actions as I did yesterday. It became almost a ritual.

And it came so abruptly.

Today I got the result of FAR.

Ha! Really!? When I saw it first on the display, I was so upset that I closed the window of the website.

I took a deep breath and accessed the NASBA’s website again.

I gave the data of FAR to the entry field and pushed the “submit” button. Then…

Financial Accounting & Reporting

89 ! I jumped up!

Oooooooooookey. Then I passed FAR, too.

I got much excited again. My wife was not so much surprised when I reported my result of BEC and REG. But this time she seemed to be impressed with me having passed FAR. And I was happy with that.

I tried checking out the result of AUD, only to find the error message, which means I have to wait.

Yeah. OK. Now three done. I can hardly wait for the result of AUD. But, yes, I have to wait; just wait.

by nn_77 | 2006-08-25 01:27 | >FARE | Comments(15)
←Click here if you liked today's diary. Thank you.

(It’s relatively cool here in Osaka.)

我觉得Hawaii比较热, 可是,因为不潮湿。所以舒服,
(I think it’s hot in Hawaii, but it’s relatively comfortable there because it’s not so humid.)

(It’s more humid in Japan than in Hawaii.)

So it’s not so easy to study at night here in Japan. Very uncomfortable.
Remembering my everyday study in Hawaii, now I think those days were definitely the ultimate luxury in my life; people around me speak only in English, which is my favorite language; the climate is so nice; people were all kind, and everything was so wonderful.
It’s of no wonder that I studied every night so effectively. よく考えたら、勉強しにハワイに行くって、贅沢ですよね。 勉強しに、ちょっと図書館に、ちょっと喫茶店にっていうのはよくありましたが、「勉強しにハワイへ」って。。。 渡航前は、周りの人からハワイに行って遊べないなんて可哀想、なんて言われましたが、今思えば、とても充実した滞在でした。

To the contrary, after I’m back from Hawaii, I couldn’t kick off my study practice as easy as I expected. ハワイのノリで続けられるかなとおもったのですが、結局、そんなに強くないnnでした。。。

But, of course, I cannot leave myself slacking off any more. I really have to work hard to learn Chinese, keep providing CPA related information, continue to practice English here on my blog, and… there are so many things I have to challenge.

FARとAUDの結果が気になってしかたがないのは分るけど、時間がかかるからしゃあないやんか。むしろ、結果を待ちながら、FARとAUDを復習し、その中で気付いたことをブログで書けば、then you can contribute to other friends of USCPA candidates in Japan.
Yes, that’s the way you should lead your life till you be informed of your results.

请多关照! (これからも、宜しくお願いします!)

比较 bi(3) jiao(4) •••adv. Relatively
潮湿 chao(3) shi(1) •••humid
by nn_77 | 2006-08-24 12:46 | Comments(0)