カテゴリ:>AUD( 35 )

How to knock down AUD? (3)

I've been writing about how to prepare for AUD section of USCPA exam since the day before yesterday.

Meanwhile, I got a question from Kima san.

--- 【Question from kima-san】-----------------------------------------------I thought that it would be wise to practice simulations and written communications in order to raise the scores of MC sections, but this method did not work. I tend to get good evaluations on Sim. and WC, but my MC scores does not go up!
Why do you think it tends to be like this?

Thank you, Kima san for leaving your question here on my blog.

It's true that solving a lot of SIMs would help you in deepeing your understanding about topics, which then leads to improvement of your MCQs accuracy.

However, MCQs could require some other skills besides deep understanding, and those skills are usually nurtured by practicing MCQs again and again.

It is usually difficult to measure how much you are prepared for SIMs because the questions are organized well in SIMs. Even when you can get a good score at a SIM problem in your textbook, that doesn't guarantee you are going to knock down SIMs in a real exam.

To the contrary, it is relatively easy to know how much you are prepared for MCQs. Solve the MCQs in the same manner as a real test condition and, at least, the accuracy ratio should be 80% or even higher. The point is that there shall be NO difficult questions or topical areas for you when you are sitting for the exam. It could be possible that such topical areas don't appear in the real exam, but nobody will never know which topial area doesn't appear in the real exam and so you cannot run a risk, of course. Thus, you shall be prepared for all the topics by the time you sit for the exam.

Why not try the random settings of GREIM CD-ROM? (Or you may try solving the problems of your paper taxtbook in the same manner.)
Then the questions appear at random manner: eg) PPS sampling comes first, followed by a question about FRAUD topic, and then IR, CR, AR matter apperas finally. If you fail to chose correct answers just because of random order of questions' topical areas, then taht means you're not prepared to AUD exam. Use this approach and try solving again and again until you don't hesiate to chose correct answer without turning to elimination method. Then you may well be ready for AUD if you are also prepared for SIMs by the time.

Above is just my idea, which naturally tends to be very subjective.
But it seems to have some trueth in it.
by nn_77 | 2008-05-27 13:33 | >AUD | Comments(2)

How to knock down AUD? (2)

When you challenge an exam that covers a broad field, you tend to think that you cannot cover whole the field with perfect understanding and so you apt to give up trying to understand all part perfectly; you might try just to do your best to cover the textbook.
But such effort doesn’t always guarantee your success in the exam. It’s because the exam doesn’t test whether you did your best in learning the subject. It doesn’t matter how much effort you made in the exam. The test is only concerned about whether you have acquired enough understanding to be considered as a professional CPA.
So if you think your understanding is not perfect, or if you think you understanding seem to be superficial, then you don’t have a chance.
I sometimes hear someone say that s/he isn’t ready to sit for the exam due to lack of preparation time. It’d be impossible, however, to pass a section of USCPA exam when you feel you aren’t prepared enough. So, in a sense, whether you pass the exam or not is determined before you sit for the exam. That could be determined by whether you’ve already acquired enough knowledge by the day of exam. If you haven’t, then, the chance that you can get it would be very remote, I think.

I’ll keep on writing this topic.
by nn_77 | 2008-05-26 00:18 | >AUD | Comments(4)

How to knock down AUD? (1)

It’s May 29th today, actually. I’ve been negligent in keeping my blog for several days.
While I was away from my blog, I have received two email messages from two different readers of my blog. To my surprise, the two wrote about the same topic and they asked me the same question: how to conquer AUD?
I have seen many people who were struggling with AUD exam. They said they have no idea about how to get through AUD exam after failing AUD exams several times.
I think I can understand how discouraging it is, when you fail an exam and there seem to be no way to reach the goal. But there certainly is a way that leads to the goal. And actually I have seen people passing AUD exam. In order to respond to the requests of the two, from today I’ll write what I think important to pass AUD, most or all of which are already mentioned here on my blog so far. But, anyway I’ll write about it just to show my idea, and just to show what I’ve seen, experienced, and thought through my own experience.
by nn_77 | 2008-05-25 00:12 | >AUD | Comments(0)

Q&A: Kiting

--- Question from kima-san -------------------------------------------

①Bank statement
②Bank transfer schedule
③Bank reconciliation



Bank Reconciliationだけをみても、それ自体はKitingを証明できません(と、思います)。
Reconciliationの明細をみて、帳簿と口座残高の「ズレ」を確認し、その「ズレ」がCutoff StatementやTransfer Scheduleと整合性を持っているかどうかを確認することでkitingを見つけることにつながったりする、ということだと思います。


by nn_77 | 2008-04-09 21:25 | >AUD | Comments(2)


宜しくお願いします m( _ _ )m

今回は、何かと忙しくて、何の趣向も凝らす間もなく、ただ会場を押さえただけになってしまいました。 そんなnnを見かねて、successor auditor...じゃなかった、successor 幹事 になってくださる方がいらっしゃったら、また、お声かけください。


*** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***

successor auditor(後任の監査人) を駄洒落に使ってしまいました。

先日のやり方で、今日は下記SAS 84 (= AU 315) からの引用です。
AU Section 315
Communications Between Predecessor and Successor Auditor

(Supersedes SAS No. 7)
Source: SAS No. 84; SAS No. 93.
Effective with respect to acceptance of an engagement after March 31, 1998,
unless otherwise indicated.

以下の引用ボックスの英文は、上記 SAS 84 (= AU 315) からの引用です。

.06 The initiative for communicating rests with the successor auditor. The communication may be either written or oral.

.08 The successor auditor should request permission from the prospective
client to make an inquiry of the predecessor auditor prior to final acceptance of the engagement.

.09 The successor auditor should make specific and reasonable inquiries of the predecessor auditor regarding matters that will assist the successor auditor in determining whether to accept the engagement. Matters subject to inquiry should include—
• Information that might bear on the integrity of management.
• Disagreements with management as to accounting principles, auditing procedures, or other similarly significant matters.
• Communications to audit committees or others with equivalent authority and responsibility regarding fraud, illegal acts by clients, and internal-control-related matters.
• The predecessor auditor's understanding as to the reasons for the change of auditors.
・クライアントの不正、違法行為、あるいは内部統制に関する事項についてAudit Committeeあるいはその同等権限者に伝えた内容。

by nn_77 | 2007-09-15 13:44 | >AUD | Comments(3)

AUD的 年金問題考察


下記のSAS#99 (=AU316)に関連記述がありました。

AU Section 316
Consideration of Fraud in a Financial
Statement Audit
(Supersedes SAS No. 82)
Source: SAS No. 99.
Effective for audits of financial statements for periods beginning on or after
December 15, 2002.



.06 Two types of misstatements are relevant to the auditor's consideration
of fraud—misstatements arising from fraudulent financial reporting and
misstatements arising from misappropriation of assets.
• Misstatements arising from fraudulent financial reporting ~(中略)~
• Misstatements arising from misappropriation of assets (sometimes referred to as theft or defalcation) ~(以下、省略)~

今回の年金横領の事案は、”misappropriation of assets”でもあるし、そうしたintentionalな行為の結果として、収支決算なども正確なデータではなくなるのだから、fraudulent financial reportingにも繋がるような気がしますね。

今回の事件をみて「何やってんねん、もう!」と批判にもならない批判をして、つい、愚痴をこぼしてしまうのですが、しかし、ここはひとつ、USCPAチックに( ? )建設的に考えて、「なぜ、そうなってしまうの?」「どうしたら、そうならないの」という目で見てみたいと思います。


すると、SAS99曰く、「fraudが生じる場合、往々にして3つの状況が存在している (Three conditions generally are present when fraud occurs.)」とのこと。


.07 Three conditions generally are present when fraud occurs. First, management or other employees have an incentive or are under pressure, which provides a reason to commit fraud. Second, circumstances exist—for example, the absence of controls, ineffective controls, or the ability of management to override controls—that provide an opportunity for a fraud to be perpetrated. Third, those involved are able to rationalize committing a fraudulent act. Some individuals possess an attitude, character, or set of ethical values that allow them to knowingly and intentionally commit a dishonest act. However, even otherwise honest individuals can commit fraud in an environment that imposes sufficient pressure on them. The greater the incentive or pressure, the more likely an individual will be able to rationalize the acceptability of committing fraud.


management or other employees have an incentive or are under pressure, which provides a reason to commit fraud.
--- 社保庁の場合、多くのケースにおいて、借金の返済が主な動機だったとメディアは報じました。これがa reason to commit fraudだったんですね。多くの会社の内部規則や服務規程で従業員の金銭の私借を禁じたり制限したりしているのも、こうした芽を摘むためですね。

circumstances exist—for example, the absence of controls, ineffective controls, or the ability of management to override controls
--- 今回の年金横領の一番の要因は、やっぱりココだなぁと感じます。TVの報道を見ていると、内部統制が無いに等しいみたいで、なんだかとても簡単に横領できてしまうシステムのように感じて怖くなりました。TVのコメンテーターの人は、「年金が実際に支給されるのは何十年も後のことだから、今、盗ってもバレないと思ってやってるんだよ」なんて言ってます。No way! そんなの、たとえ今盗ってもすぐバレるのがのフツーのシステムです。そうじゃないと、怖くて定期預金も出来ないじゃないですか。銀行で預金をしたら、通帳をもらえたり、あるいは、最近は米国みたいに、通帳を発行しない代わりに毎月末時点で残高明細・1ヶ月間の入出金明細が郵送されたり、Eメールで送られてきたりします。
もうひとつ、internal control (内部統制)といえばお決まりなのがsegregation of dutiesというやつです。この種の機械端末の操作は、普通、独りでは完結出来ず、担当者がオペレーションして、上司が決裁操作をして初めて操作ができるというのが多いはず。このsegregation of dutiesの考え方が機能していれば、たとえある一人の従業員が、さっきの一つ目の”・・・have an incentive or are under pressure, which provides a reason to commit fraud” に陥ってfraudしようとしても、したくても出来ないはずなんですね。


those involved are able to rationalize committing a fraudulent act.
--- ね、こうして、fraudulent actを正当化(rationalize)してしまうような人だったら、ましてや、職場の人がみ~んなそんなキャラだったら。。。そりゃあ、fraud起きますね。

1)入社時の面接をきちっとして、“rationalize committing a fraudulent act“するような人を雇わない。
2)そうして入社した従業員が“a reason to commit fraud”を持たないように、そんな事態に巻き込まれないように、服務規程などを通じて、私生活も含めた規律を従業員に求める。
3)それでも、魔がさしてしまう人が、「つい、やってしまう」ことを決意しても、やろうにも出来ないような内部統制(Internal Control)を構築する。


by nn_77 | 2007-09-11 15:51 | >AUD | Comments(2)


NIKKEI NET 日経新聞社 2007/05/07 の記事を引用

The environment of audit business in Japan is falling into such a manpower shortage that many auditing firms are withdrawing from auditing of public companies.
Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which was enacted in US to demand public companies to pursue much stricter internal control, was introduced to Japan, which is famous for its acronym JSOX. This JSOX is applied from FY2008 in Japan, which obviously is one of the causes of the above mentioned situation.
In the meantime, the regulation regarding SOX law in US is to be alleviated because US stock market is losing its competitiveness against the European market due to those too strict controls imposed by SOX law.
Japan is said to be very good at importing things and adjusting them into Japanese style as we can see in the example of western clothes, fast foods, and many other cultural things which originally started in foreign countries.
Now, let’s see what they’re gonna do with JSOX.
by nn_77 | 2007-05-05 12:25 | >AUD | Comments(0)


53 Days before 日商簿記1級

引用元: FujiSankei Business i. 2007/4/17
SAS70 生保の内部統制を証明 :日本版SOX法施行に対応

 SASは、「Statement on Auditing Standards」(監査標準報告書)の略です。米国公認会計協会(AICPA)が定めた認証制度で、業務の外部委託先で内部統制が適切に行われているかを評価しています。日本の監査法人も、AICPAの基準に基づいて認証を出しています。




by nn_77 | 2007-04-17 18:42 | >AUD | Comments(2)


先日の記事で、上場企業の監査報告書日付が、近々、field workの最終日ではなくなるらしいと知ってビックリした、ということを書きました。






3.2006年12月になり、今度は、PCAOBが上場企業監査の為に管理するInterim Standards(もともと、その多くをAICPAのSASからとってきたもの?)についても、監査報告書日付のルールを同様に変更する修正案が提出された(Rulemaking Docket 021)。 もうすぐ導入の見込み。



先ず、Beckerのサイトで、当該箇所をチェック。kyokoさんに教えていただいた通り、「2006 Auditing 1 & 4 Update」に載っていました。

SSAE 13, SAS 102, and SAS 103
Updates for 2006 Edition
Last Updated June 1, 2006

SAS 103 Summary
SAS 103 was recently issued. Under SAS 103, the date of the auditor's report is no longer determined by the completion of fieldwork. Instead, the auditor's report should be dated on or after the date on which appropriate audit evidence, sufficient to support the opinion, has been

2006年の6月、今から半年くらい前のアップデート情報ですね。SAS 103というのが出て、監査報告書の日付は、もう、fieldworkの完了日じゃないよー、って書いてます。代わりに、「appropriate audit evidence, sufficient to support the opinion, has been obtained」の日、若しくはそれ以降の日付にするコト、ですって。.


その後、“SAS 103” などをキーワードにGoogleで調べたら、幾つか関連のニュース記事が見つかりました。


【以下、Massachusetts Society of CPAs, Inc®のウェブサイトより引用】-------
News Article
Major Changes to Auditing Standards are Now in Effect
Posted Thursday, November 30, 2006
Currently, auditor’s reports are dated as of the last day of fieldwork. The new standard states that “The auditor’s report should not be dated earlier than the date on which the auditor has obtained sufficient appropriate audit evidence to support the opinion.


去年の11月の記事ですが、いまのところはthe last day of fieldworkを監査報告書日付にしてるけど、新しい基準では変わるぞーって書いてます。やっぱりそうだ。。。


【以下、New Hampshire Society of Certified Public Accountants

Major Changes to Auditing Standards are Now in Effect
Thursday, Dec 14, 2006

Major changes to auditing standards are occurring, with some having effective dates as early as audits with years ending December 31, 2006. The California Peer Review Committee decided to write this letter to alert you to these major changes.
Currently, auditor’s reports are dated
as of the last day of fieldwork. The new standard states that “The auditor’s
report should not be dated earlier than the date on which the auditor has obtained
sufficient appropriate audit evidence to support the opinion.

↑去年の12月の記事で「Now in Effect」、適用開始~、となってますね。
去年6月の発表から半年後の12月にNow in Effect、というのは時期的に整合性がありますね。


SAS 103 Audit Documentation AU 339

とあり、SAS103 はAU339であることが分りました。



AU Section 339
Audit Documentation
(Supersedes SAS No. 96)
Source: SAS No. 103.
See section 9339 for interpretations of this section.
Effective for audits of financial statements for periods ending on or after
December 15, 2006.

Appendix B
Amendment to Statement on Auditing Standards No. 1,
Codification of Auditing Standards and Procedures,
“Dating of the Independent Auditor’s Report”
[section 530]
B1. This amendment changes the date of the auditor's report from the date of completion of fieldwork to require that the auditor's report be dated no earlier than the date on which the auditor has obtained sufficient appropriate audit
evidence to support the opinion on the financial statements.

「Amendment to Statement on Auditing Standards No. 1」とあるので、このAU339によって、ルールがamendされたんですね。



一方で、先日見つけたPCAOBのサイトの記述では、Proposed Amendments to the Board's Interim Standards、つまり、例の、PCAOBがAICPAから引き継いだ暫定監査基準への修正案となっていました。




3.2006年12月になり、今度は、PCAOBが上場企業監査の為に管理するInterim Standards(もともと、その多くをAICPAのSASからとってきたもの?)についても、監査報告書日付のルールを同様に変更する修正案が提出された。 もうすぐ導入の見込み。




これからも、どうぞ「nn的~」をヨロシクお願いいたします。m(_ _)m


全ては独学なので費用も数千円、試験も申し込みが始まっていない状態なので、間に合わなければ、受験を先送りすることも、まだ、可能。 勉強しながら、間に合いそうかどうか、再チェックが必要です。
by nn_77 | 2007-01-11 20:13 | >AUD | Comments(0)
  When I was preparing for AUD exam last year, I memorized several types of auditors’ reports. When I recited the sentences of the standard auditor’s report ( you can hear my lousy English here ) , I always finished with a phrase, “the last date of the field work,” which wasn’t a part of the written sentences, actually. But, instead, some actual date was to be inserted there at the end of the report.  However, I included the phrase “the last date of the field work” at the end of my recitation, because I learned the last date of the field work was to be put here and I thought I could memorize that rule by memorizing it together.

  But, when I visited a blog, titled “Journal Of Hiro Chan ( The big Face ) http://blog.livedoor.jp/nycpa/,” I learned that the above will not always be the case any longer.  The other day, Mr. Sasaki, the author of the blog, noted that there was a change in AUD topics in an article of his blog. (cf. “監査 変更点”: http://blog.livedoor.jp/nycpa/archives/50525870.html ).

Really!? ビックリです。



でも、直近のSASってどうやって見よう? NTSが届いたら受験生がリサーチの練習に使えるあのオンラインシステムはもう使えないし。。。




Authoritative Standards and Related Guidance for Non-Issuers



● Authoritative AICPA Audit and Attest Standards as of June 1, 2006
 ○ Statements on Auditing Standards (SASs)


Auditing Standards


“SAS 1 Dating of the Independent Auditor's Report AU 530A“



“Generally, the date of completion of the field work should be used as the date of the independent auditor's report. Paragraph .05 describes the procedure to be followed when a subsequent event occurring after the completion of the
field work is disclosed in the financial statements.”



Standards ( http://www.pcaobus.org/Standards/index.aspx ) のところから・・・

AU Section 530


Generally, the date of completion of the field work should be used as the date of the independent auditor's report. Paragraph .05 describes the procedure to be followed when a subsequent event occurring after the completion of the field work is disclosed in the financial statements.


でも、良く見ると上のところに、”Source: SAS No. 1, section 530; SAS No. 29; SASSource: SAS No. 1, section 530; SAS No. 29; SAS No. 98. “って書いてある。そりゃ同じはずだ。





「"public companies" "date of " "audit report"」


PCAOB Briefing Paperと題されたサイトが検索に引っかかりました。


“Proposed Amendments to the Board's Interim Standards
– The Board will consider proposing amendments that, among other things, would:

• Simplify the internal control standard by moving certain information currently contained in AS No. 2 to other existing interim standards. For example, the proposed amendments would move the auditor's responsibilities for management's internal control certifications under Section 302 of the Act into AU sec. 722, Interim Financial Information; and

Change the existing requirement that "generally, the date of completion of the field work should be used as the date of the independent auditor's report" to "the auditor should date the audit report no earlier than the date on which the auditor has obtained sufficient competent evidence to support the auditor's opinion."
(注:上記の「PCAOB Briefing Paper」より引用。太字処理はnnによるものです。)

ついに発見! ようやく見つかった~。


しかし、パラグラフの最初に、”Proposed Amendments”と書いてあるな。どういうことだろう? そう思って、上記の続きを読むと・・・

Public Comment
  If the Board issues the proposals, it will seek comment on them for a 70-dayperiod. The Board will carefully consider all comments received. Following the close ofthe comment period, the Board will determine whether to adopt final rules, with or without amendments. Any final rules will be submitted to the Securities and Exchange Commission for approval. Pursuant to Section 107 of the Act, proposed rules of the Board do not take effect unless approved by the Commission. Standards are rules ofthe Board under the Act.



そんなことを考えながら、今一度、PCAOBのサイトをぼんやり眺めてみると、Rulesのトコロに“Dockets open for Comment”という文字を発見。「open for comment」っていうことは、さっきのと関係あるのか?と思い、クリックして進んでいくと、「Rulemaking Docket 021: Proposed Auditing Standard」 というページが開きました。そして、“Proposal Briefing Paper”とあるPDFリンク、を開くと、さっきと同じ内容が、もっと綺麗な形で開きました。

そうかー、PCAOBのウェブサイトは、ここで、新しいProposalがコメント募集中であることを公開していたんだ。。。 フムフム、日付が去年の12月19日になっているから、このままいけば、今年の2月末にはこのProposalが通るのかな?


「"date of" "audit report" "obtained sufficient competent"」→検索

そしたら、Financial Executives International ( http://www.fei.org/eweb/ )という、私にはあまり縁の無さそうな(涙)サイトの、とある記事が見つかりました。

“PCAOB Proposes New Internal Control Audit Standard ( http://www2.fei.org/blog/permanent.cfm?post_id=192 ) “

記事を読んでみると、やっぱり、昨年12月にPCAOB内で unanimously に可決されたこれらのProposalが70日間のcomment periodを経て、最終的に導入されていくようです。ということは、USCPA試験に導入されるのは、早ければ半年後のテスティングウィンドウくらいからかな? (cf. CPA exam FAQ by AICPA : http://www.cpa-exam.org/cpa/computer_faqs_2.html

やっぱり、資格とりっぱなしにしないで、今後もちょくちょく勉強しないといけないな。。。本当はAICPAとかに加入して継続教育(CPE: Continuing Professional Education)とかやっていくべきなんだろうけれど、お金と時間が。。。(涙)



※ 佐々木様、よくブログを拝見させていただいております。調べる機会を下さりありがとうございました。アップデート情報を調べるきっかけはなかなか見つからないので、大変感謝いたしております。冒頭のように一部、勝手に紹介させていただいておりますが、不適切な点などございましたら、即、修正対応いたしますので、当方ブログコメント欄までご連絡下さい。
by nn_77 | 2007-01-09 21:21 | >AUD | Comments(5)